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Baryogenesis: A Symmetry Breaking in the Primordial Universe Revisited

D. S. Pereira, J. Ferraz, F. S. N. Lobo, J. P. Mimoso

In this review article, we revisit the topic of baryogenesis, which is the physical process that generated the observed baryon asymmetry during the first stages of the primordial Universe. A viable theoretical explanation to understand and investigate the mechanisms underlying baryogenesis must always ensure that the Sakharov criteria are fulfilled. These essentially state the following: (i) baryon number violation; (ii) the violation of both C (charge conjugation symmetry) and CP (the composition of parity and C); (iii) and the departure from equilibrium. Throughout the years, various mechanisms have been proposed to address this issue, and here we review two of the most important, namely, electroweak baryogenesis (EWB) and Grand Unification Theories (GUTs) baryogenesis. Furthermore, we briefly explore how a change in the theory of gravity affects the EWB and GUT baryogenesis by considering Scalar–Tensor Theories (STT), where the inclusion of a scalar field mediates the gravitational interaction, in addition to the metric tensor field. We consider specific STT toy models and show that a modification of the underlying gravitational theory implies a change in the time–temperature relation of the evolving cosmological model, thus altering the conditions that govern the interplay between the rates of the interactions generating baryon asymmetry, and the expansion rate of the Universe. Therefore, the equilibrium of the former does not exactly occur as in the general relativistic standard model, and there are consequences for the baryogenesis mechanisms that have been devised. This is representative of the type of modifications of the baryogenesis processes that are to be found when considering extended theories of gravity.

baryon asymmetry; symmetry breaking; primordial Universe; scalar–tensor theory

Volume 16, Number 1, Page 29
2024 January

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Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia