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Cosmological bounces, cyclic universes, and effective cosmological constant in Einstein-Cartan-Dirac-Maxwell theory

F. T. O. Cabral, F. S. N. Lobo, D. Rubiera-Garcia

Abstract
Einstein-Cartan theory is an extension of the standard formulation of general relativity characterized by a nonvanishing torsion. The latter is sourced by the matter fields via the spin tensor, and its effects are expected to be important at very high spin densities. In this work, we analyze in detail the physics of Einstein-Cartan theory with Dirac and Maxwell fields minimally coupled to the spacetime torsion. This breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry, which is suggested by the possibility of a torsion-induced phase transition in the early Universe. The resulting Dirac-like and Maxwell-like equations are nonlinear with self-interactions as well as having fermion-boson nonminimal couplings. We discuss several cosmological aspects of this theory under the assumption of randomly oriented spin densities (unpolarized matter), including bounces, acceleration phases, and matter-antimatter asymmetry in the torsion era, as well as late-time effects such as the generation of an effective cosmological constant, dark energy, and future bounces within cyclic solutions.

Keywords
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology; Astrophysics - Cosmology and Nongalactic Astrophysics; High Energy Physics - Theory

Physical Review D
Volume 102, Issue 0835, Page 20
2020 October

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia