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Dark energy from topology

M. Le Delliou, M. Espina

Abstract
The concordance model of cosmology suffers from the major theoretical problems surrounding the observed value and recent emergence of a cosmological constant. In this paper we present a novel approach, which explains more naturally its value than that based on quantum vacuum energy, in the form of topological invariants characteristic classes, included as Lagrange multipliers in the action. The approach draws from topological as well as dynamical system consideration, generating as a byproduct an effective cosmological constant. General Relativity is recovered by canceling the torsion in a region containing the observable Universe, which boundary constraints the invariants, thus yielding the effective cosmological constant's form. As that form's denominator contains the total volume of the average black hole, calculated from a geometrical mean on the estimated black hole mass distribution and directly associated to the ratio of the total volume boundary of the space-time manifold and the dominant term in its Euler characteristic. The constant's small estimated value compared to the Planck scale is therefore natural and our evaluation fits remarkably well with the observed value.

Keywords
General Relativity and Quantum Cosmology

Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics
Volume 3, Issue 020
2020 March

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia