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Einstein–Cartan–Dirac gravity with U(1) symmetry breaking

F. T. O. Cabral, F. S. N. Lobo, D. Rubiera-Garcia

Abstract
Einstein–Cartan theory is an extension of the standard formulation of General Relativity where torsion (the antisymmetric part of the affine connection) is non-vanishing. Just as the space-time metric is sourced by the stress-energy tensor of the matter fields, torsion is sourced via the spin density tensor, whose physical effects become relevant at very high spin densities. In this work we introduce an extension of the Einstein–Cartan–Dirac theory with an electromagnetic (Maxwell) contribution minimally coupled to torsion. This contribution breaks the U(1) gauge symmetry, which is suggested by the possibility of a torsion-induced phase transition in the early Universe, yielding new physics in extreme (spin) density regimes. We obtain the generalized gravitational, electromagnetic and fermionic field equations for this theory, estimate the strength of the corrections, and discuss the corresponding phenomenology. In particular, we briefly address some astrophysical considerations regarding the relevance of the effects which might take place inside ultra-dense neutron stars with strong magnetic fields (magnetars).

The European Physical Journal C
Volume 79, Issue 12
2019 December

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Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço Universidade do Porto Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa
Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia COMPETE 2020 PORTUGAL 2020 União Europeia